Any discourse on development is conditional on the indicator used to measure it. In 2023, the last decade is the period since 2013, which largely overlaps with the Narendra Modi government, in office since 2014. India follows the fiscal year system, not the calendar year. From 2013-14 to 2022-23, the average growth in real national income has been around 5.7%. 2019-20 and 2020-21 were affected by Covid and lockdown, with negative real growth in 2020-21.
The Paper can be downloaded here.
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